Wednesday, November 13, 2019

(Preamble) 

We the People of  the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordainand establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I (Article 1 - Legislative)

Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall bevestedin a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2

1:The House of Representatives shall be composed of  Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

2:No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3:Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term oftenYears, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for everythirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;and until suchenumerationshall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusettseight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantationsone, Connecticutfive, New-York six, New Jerseyfour, Pennsylvaniaeight, Delawareone, Marylandsix, Virginiaten, North Carolinafive, South Carolinafive, and Georgiathree.

4:When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of  Election to fill such Vacancies.

5:The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3

1:The Senate of the United States shall be composed oftwoSenators from each State, chosen by the Legislature there of, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

2:Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of thesecondClass at the Expiration of thefourthYear, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so thatone thirdmay be chosen everysecondYear; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

3:No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age ofthirtyYears, and beennineYears a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4:The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

5:The Senate shallchusetheir other Officers, and also a Presidentpro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6:The Senate shall have the sole Power to try allImpeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without theConcurrenceoftwo thirdsof the Members present.

7:Judgment in Cases ofimpeachmentshall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject toIndictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4

1:The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

2:The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year,and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,5unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5

1:Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute aQuorumto do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

2:Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

3:Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire ofone fifthof those Present, be entered on the Journal.

4:Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other,adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6

1:The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

2:No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments where of shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7

1:All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

2:Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsiderationtwo thirdsof that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved bytwo thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President withintenDays (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by theirAdjournmentprevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

3:Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which theConcurrenceof the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall berepassedbytwo thirdsof the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed n the Case of a Bill.

Section 8

1:The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties,I mpostsand Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defenceand general Welfareof the United States; but all Duties,Impostsand Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

2:To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

3:To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

4:To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5:To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

6:To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

7:To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

8:To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

9:To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

10:To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

11:To declare War, grantLetters of MarqueandReprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

12:To raise and support Armies, but noAppropriationof Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term thantwoYears;

13:To provide and maintain a Navy;

14:To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

15:To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

16:To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the disciplineprescribedby Congress;

17:To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases what so ever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cessionof particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

18:To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powersvestedby this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9

1:The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to theYear one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

2:The Privilege of theWritofHabeas Corpusshall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

3:NoBill of Attainder or ex post factoLaw shall be passed.

4:NoCapitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid,unless in Proportion to the Census orEnumerationherein before directed to be taken.

5:No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

6:No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

7:No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

8:No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10

1:No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marqueand Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder,ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

2:No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Impostsor Dutieson Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

3:No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II(Article 2 - Executive)

Section 1

1:The executive Power shall bevestedin a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term off our Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2:Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3:The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediatelychuseby Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Mannerchusethe President. But inchusingthe President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; Aquorumfor this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shallchusefrom them by Ballot the Vice President.

4:The Congress may determine the Time ofchusingthe Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5:No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age ofthirty fiveYears, and beenfourteenYears a Resident within the United States.

6:In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers andDutiesof the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7:The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither beencreasednor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8:Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2

1:The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to theDutiesof their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons forOffencesagainst the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2:He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, providedtwo thirdsof the Senators presentconcur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3:The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time ofAdjournment, he mayadjournthem to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of,Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III(Article 3 - Judicial)

Section 1

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2

1:The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State—between Citizens of different States, —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens there of, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

2:In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have originalJurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

3:The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases ofImpeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3

1:Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treasonunless on the Testimony oftwoWitnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

2:The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Personattainted.

Article IV(Article 4 - States' Relations)

Section 1

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2

1:The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

2:A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State havingJurisdictionof the Crime.

3:No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3

1:New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction oftwoor more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

2:The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union aRepublicanForm of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

    Article V(Article 5 - Mode of Amendment)

The Congress, whenevertwo thirdsof both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures oftwo thirdsof the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions inthree fourthsthereof, as theoneor the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the YearOne thousand eight hundred and eightshall in any Manner affect thefirstandfourthClauses in theNinthSection of thefirstArticle; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI(Article 6 - Prior Debts, National Supremacy, Oaths of Office)

1:All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2:This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3:The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII(Article 7 - Ratification)

The Ratification of the Conventions ofnineStates, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word "the", being interlined between the seventh and eight Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty"being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page. The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between theforty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

   donein Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present theSeventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lordone thousand seven hundred and Eighty sevenand of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness  where of We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
AttestWilliam JacksonSecretary

  Go:Washington -Presidt.and deputy from Virginia


Delaware

  Geo:Read
  Gunning Bedfordjun
  John Dickinson
  Richard Bassett
  Jaco:Broom


Maryland

  James McHenry
  DanofSt  Thos.Jenifer
  DanlCarroll.


Virginia

  John Blair—
  James MadisonJr.


North Carolina

  WmBlount
  Richd.Dobbs Spaight.
  HuWilliamson


South Carolina

  J.Rutledge
  Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
  CharlesPinckney
  Pierce Butler.


Georgia

  William Few
  AbrBaldwin


New Hampshire

  John Langdon
  Nicholas Gilman


Massachusetts

  Nathaniel Gorham
  Rufus King


Connecticut

  Wm.  Saml.Johnson
  Roger Sherman


New York

  Alexander Hamilton


New Jersey

  Wil.Livingston
  David Brearley.
  Wm.Paterson.
  Jona:Dayton


Pennsylvania

  B Franklin
  Thomas Mifflin
  RobtMorris
  Geo.Clymer
  Thos.FitzSimons
  Jared Ingersoll
  James Wilson.
  GouvMorris


Letter of Transmittal

In Convention. Monday September 17th 1787.
Present
The States of

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

Resolved, That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution.
That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

By the unanimous Order of the Convention
W. Jackson  Secretary. Go:Washington -Presidt.


Letter of Transmittal to the President of Congress

In Convention.  Monday September 17th 1787.

SIR: We have now the honor to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable. The friends of our country have long seen and desired that the power of making war, peace, and treaties, that of levying money, and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in the General Government of the Union; but the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident: hence results the necessity of a different organization. It is obviously impracticable in the Federal Government of these States to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all. Individuals entering into society must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be preserved; and, on the present occasion, this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several States as to their situation, extent, habits, and particular interests. In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety—perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each State in the Convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude than might have been otherwise expected; and thus, the Constitution which we now present is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession, which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable. That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every State is not, perhaps, to be expected; but each will, doubtless, consider, that had her interest alone been consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that Country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish.     With great respect,
    we have the honor to be,
        SIR,
      your excellency's most obedient and humble servants:
    GEORGE WASHINGTON,President.
  By the unanimous order of the convention. His Excellency
  the President of Congress.


Amendments to the Constitution

 (The procedure for changing the United States Constitution isArticle V- Mode of Amendment)

(The Preamble to The Bill of Rights)


CongressOF THEUnited States

begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday thefourthof March,one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that furtherdeclaratoryand restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution;viz.

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to thefifthArticle of the original Constitution.

(Articles I through X are known as the Bill of Rights)

Article the first. ....  After the first enumeration required by the first Article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

-

Article the second. ....  No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.see amendment 27

Article [I](Amendment 1 - Freedom of expression and religion)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for are dress of grievances.

Article [II](Amendment 2 - Bearing Arms)

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article [III](Amendment 3 - Quartering Soldiers)

No Soldier shall, in time of peace bequarteredin any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to beprescribedby law.

Article [IV](Amendment 4 - Search and Seizure)

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article [V](Amendment 5 - Rights of Persons)

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment orindictmentof a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article [VI](Amendment 6 - Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance ofCounselfor hisdefence.

Article [VII](Amendment 7 - Civil Trials)

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article [VIII](Amendment 8 - Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases)

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article [IX](Amendment 9 - Unenumerated Rights)

Thee numeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not beconstruedto deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article [X](Amendment 10 - Reserved Powers)

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Attest,
John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
Sam.A. Otis  Secretary of the Senate.
    Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg  Speaker of the House of Representatives.
John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate.


(end of the Bill of Rights)

[Article XI](Amendment 11 - Suits Against States)

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity,commencedor prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

[Article XII](Amendment 12 - Election of President)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceedingthreeon the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state havingonevote; aquorumfor this purpose shall consist of a member or members fromtwo-thirdsof the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before thefourthday of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from thetwohighest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; aquorumfor the purpose shall consist oftwo-thirdsof the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

Article XIII(Amendment 13 - Slavery and Involuntary Servitude)

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to theirjurisdiction.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  

Article XIV(Amendment 14 - Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection)

1:All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to thejurisdictionthereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within itsjurisdictionthe equal protection of the laws.

2:Representatives shall beapportionedamong the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of themaleinhabitants of such State, beingtwenty-oneyears of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of suchmalecitizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-oneyears of age in such State.  

3:No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote oftwo-thirdsof each House, remove such disability.

4:The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5:The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

Article XV(Amendment 15 - Rights of Citizens to Vote)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied orabridgedby the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Article XVI(Amendment 16 - Income Tax)

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, with out apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.  

[Article XVII](Amendment 17 - Popular Election of Senators)

1:The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people there of, for six years; and each Senator shall haveonevote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

2:When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

3:This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.  

Article [XVIII](Amendment 18 - Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors)

1:After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2:The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3:This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.  

Article [XIX](Amendment 19 - Women's Suffrage Rights)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  

Article [XX](Amendment 20 - Terms of President, Vice President, Members of Congress: Presidential Vacancy)

1:The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.  

 2:The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.  

3:If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4:The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall havedevolvedupon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall havedevolvedupon them

5:Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6:This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.  

Article [XXI](Amendment 21 - Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment)

1:Theeighteentharticle of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2:The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3:This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 

Amendment XXII(Amendment 22 - Presidential Tenure)

1:No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more thantwoyears of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2:This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

Amendment XXIII(Amendment 23 - Presidential Electors for the District of Columbia)

1:The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform suchdutiesas provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2:The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  

Amendment XXIV(Amendment 24 - Abolition of the Poll Tax Qualification in Federal Elections)

1.The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2.The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  

Amendment XXV   (Amendment 25 - Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and Inability)

1:In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2:Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3:Whenever the President transmits to the Presidentpro temporeof the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers anddutiesof his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers anddutiesshall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4:Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the Presidentpro temporeof the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers anddutiesof his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers anddutiesof the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the Presidentpro temporeof the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers anddutiesof his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the Presidentpro temporeof the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers anddutiesof his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling withinforty-eighthours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, withintwenty-onedays after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, withintwenty-onedays after Congress is required to assemble, determines bytwo-thirdsvote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers anddutiesof his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers anddutiesof his office.  

Amendment XXVI(Amendment 26 - Reduction of Voting Age Qualification)

1:The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied orabridgedby the United States or any state on account of age.

2:The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XXVII(Amendment 27 - Congressional Pay Limitation)

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.  

Join our mailing list for show dates

Contact Tom